Lifespan Development Notes

Jan 29, 2020
By: Jerry A. Goodson
In: College

These are just notes from my Lifespan Development class.  These aren't general "Cliff's Notes" or test aids for any other class, but rather mine, specifically.

Lifespan Textbook

    Chapter 7

  1. (p. 321) - TRUE
    the natural physical decline brought about by aging
  2. (p. 321) - WALKING OR VISION
    a condition that substantially limits a major life activity such as walking or vision.
  3. (p. 322) - FALSE 1990 of the landmark Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) -- not American with Disabilities Law.
  4. (p. 326) - TRUE
    psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
    the study of the relationship among the brain, the immune system, and psychological factors
  5. (p. 334) - contextual component of intelligence takes account of the demands of everyday, real-world environments
  6. (p. 334) - TRUE
    practical intelligence
    according to Sternberg, intelligence that is learned primarily by observing others and modeling their behavior
  7. (p. 336) - TRUE Only around 40 percent of those who start college finish four years later with a degree
  8. (p. 337) - TRUE young adults age, they begin to feel the need to settle down with a family. This change in attitude can reduce their risk-taking behavior and make them focus more on acquiring the ability to support their family—a phenomenon that has been labeled maturation reform.
  9. (p. 345) - TRUE
    passionate (or romantic) love
    a state of powerful absorption in someone
  10. (p. 351) - TRUE
    couples living together without being married

    Chapter 8

  11. (p. 369) - FALSE Starting at around age 40, visual acuity—the ability to discern fine spatial detail in both close and distant objects—begins to decline
  12. (p. 372) - TRUE In hormone therapy (HT), estrogen and progesterone are administered to alleviate the worst of the symptoms experienced by menopausal women.
  13. (p. 378) - D for distressed For example, psychologist Johan Denollet has identified behavior he calls Type D—for “distressed”—that is linked to coronary heart disease.
  14. (p. 383) - TRUE
    fluid intelligence
    reflects the ability to solve and reason about novel problems
  15. (p. 403) - TRUE
    a situation that occurs when workers experience dissatisfaction, disillusionment, frustration, and weariness from their jobs
  16. (p. 406) - RETIREMENT A significant number of people find leisure so alluring that they take early retirement.

    Chapter 9

  17. (p. 412) - 85 older ...and the oldest old are 85 and older
  18. (p. 418) - TRUE Although hearing aids would probably be helpful around 75 percent of the time, only 20 percent of elderly people wear them.
  19. (p. 420) - TRUE
    Alzheimer’s disease
    a progressive brain disorder that produces loss of memory and confusion
  20. (p. 435) - People who are successful in this stage of development experience satisfaction and accomplishment, which Erikson terms “integrity.”
  21. (p. 439) - WISDOM
    expert knowledge in the practical aspects of life
  22. (p. 446) - HONEYMOON Retirement may begin with a honeymoon period, in which people engage in a variety of activities, such as travel, that were previously hindered by work.
  23. (p. 463) - FALSE The most frequent cause of death in midlife is heart attack or stroke.
  24. (p. 463) - white males over 85 ...and no age group has a higher suicide rate than white men older than age 85.
  25. (p. 464) - FALSE
    people who study death and dying

    Chapter 4

  1. (p. 160)By age 2, the average child in the United States weighs around 25 to 30 pounds and is close to 36 inches tall
  2. (p. 161)One unresolved question about preschooler’s food involves feeding them genetically modified organisms, or GMOs.
  3. (p. 162)Because even tiny amounts of lead can permanently harm children, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has called lead poisoning the most severe health threat to children younger than age 6. (HINT: The answer is true)
  4. (p. 166)...the activity level is higher at age 3 than at any other point in the entire life span.
  5. (p. 167)Some 90 percent are right-handed and 10 percent are left-handed, and more boys than girls are left-handed.
  6. (p. 171)Another hallmark of the preoperational period is egocentric thinking.
  7. (p. 175)Vygotsky’s approach is therefore quite different from Piaget’s. Where Piaget looked at children and saw junior scientists, working by themselves to develop an independent understanding of the world, Vygotsky saw cognitive apprentices, learning from master teachers the skills valued in the child’s culture.
  8. (p. 180-181)Early education alternatives:
    • Child-care centers
    • Family child-care centers
    • Preschools
    • School child care
  9. (p. 189)Types of children:
    • Parallel
    • Onlooker
    • Associative
    • Cooperative
  10. (p. 193)Permissive parents place little or no limits or control on their children’s behavior.
  11. (p. 196)Psychological maltreatment occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children’s behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning. It may be the result of overt behavior or neglect. (HINT: The answer is false)
  12. (p. 198)
    moral development
    the changes in people’s sense of justice and of what is right and wrong, and in their behavior related to moral issues
  13. (p. 199)Some theorists believe that increasing empathy (along with other positive emotions, such as sympathy and admiration) leads children to behave morally.
  14. (p. 200)...evolutionary theorists and sociobiologists (or sociologists), scientists who consider the biological roots of social behavior.
  15. (p. 201)Social learning approaches emphasize how social and environmental conditions teach individuals to be aggressive.

    Chapter 5

  16. (p. 210)In elementary school, children in the United States grow, on average, 2 to 3 inches a year.
  17. (p. 211)Obesity is defined as body weight that is more than 20 percent above the average for a given age and height.
  18. (p. 215)The most frequent injury to children is automobile accidents.
  19. (p. 216)Bipolar disorder such as Ben’s is diagnosed when a person cycles back and forth between two extreme emotional states: unrealistically high spirits and energy, and depression.
  20. (p. 218)childhood-onset fluency disorder, or stuttering, involves a substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech and is the most common speech impairment.
  21. (p. 224)Memory in the information-processing model is the ability to record (encode), store, and retrieve information.
  22. (p. 228)Explain one of the four reading stages:
    • Stage 1 brings the first real type of reading, but it largely involves phonological
    recoding skills. At this stage, which usually encompasses the first and second grade, children can sound out words by blending the letters together. Children also complete the job of learning the names of letters and the sounds that go with them.
    • In Stage 2, typically around second and third grades, children learn to read aloud
    with fluency. However, they do not attach much meaning to the words because the effort involved in simply sounding out words is usually so great that relatively few cognitive resources are left over to process the meaning of the words.
    • The next period, Stage 3, extends from fourth to eighth grade. Reading becomes
    a means to an end—in particular, a way to learn. Whereas earlier reading was an accomplishment in and of itself, by this point children use reading to learn about the world. However, even at this age, understanding gained from reading is not complete. For instance, one limitation children have at this stage is that they are able to comprehend information only when it is presented from a single perspective.
    • In the final period, Stage 4, children are able to read and process information
    that reflects multiple points of view. This ability, which begins during the transition into high school, permits children to develop a far more sophisticated understanding of material. This explains why great works of literature are not read at an earlier stage of education. It is not so much that younger children do not have the vocabulary to understand such works (although this is partially true); it is that they lack the ability to understand the multiple points of view that sophisticated literature invariably presents.
  23. NOTE: The answer on the test is false!!!
    (p. 232)
    the capacity to understand the world, think with rationality, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges
  24. (p. 239) 1975 when Congress passed Public Law 94–142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The intent of the law—an intent largely realized—was to ensure that special needs children were educated in the least restrictive environment, that is, the setting most similar to that of children without special needs.
  25. (p. 240-241)
    an approach through which students are kept at grade level but are enrolled in special programs and given individual activities to allow greater depth of study on a given topic
  26. (p. 247)Kohlberg suggests that moral development emerges in a three-level sequence, further subdivided into six stages.
  27. (p. 250-251)Know the 3 Stages of friendship
  28. (p. 255)
    dominance hierarchy
    rankings that represent the relative social power of those in a group
  29. (p. 257)Overall, 17 percent of all children in the United States live in blended families.
  30. (p. 259)
    self-care children
    children who let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until their caretakers return from work; previously known as latchkey children

    Chapter 6

  31. (p. 268)
    the developmental stage that lies between childhood and adulthood
  32. (p. 268)
    the period during which the sexual organs mature
  33. (p. 269)Primary sex characteristics are associated with the development of the organs and body structures related directly to reproduction.
  34. (p. 270)The surge in hormones that triggers puberty also may lead to rapid mood swings.
  35. (p. 274)NOTE: The answer on the test is false.
    Anorexia is a dangerous psychological disorder; some 15 to 20 percent of its victims starve themselves to death. It primarily afflicts women between the ages of 12 and 40; intelligent, successful, and attractive white adolescent girls from affluent homes are the most susceptible
  36. (p. 275)The prefrontal cortex of the brain, which is not fully developed until the early 20s, undergoes considerable development during adolescence.
  37. (p. 277)NOTE: The answer is false on the test.
    addictive drugs
    drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in users, leading to increasingly powerful cravings for them
  38. (p. 280)The most common STI is human papilloma virus (HPV).
  39. (p. 281)Short of abstinence, there is no certain way to avoid STIs.
  40. (p. 297)Commitment is psychological investment in a course of action or an ideology
  41. (p. 299)The pluralistic society model suggests that U.S. society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual features.
  42. (p. 300)Between 25 and 40 percent of girls and 20 to 35 percent of boys experience occasional episodes of depression during adolescence, although the incidence of major depression is far lower.
  43. (p. 301)Adolescent suicide in the United States has tripled in the last 30 years.
  44. (p. 302)One of the signs of suicide: Preoccupation with death in music, art, or literature.
  45. (p. 304)
    generation gap
    a divide between parents and adolescents in attitudes, values, aspirations, and world views
  46. (p. 306)
    groups of from 2 to 12 people whose members have frequent social interactions with one another
    larger groups than cliques, composed of individuals who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with one another
  47. (p. 307)
    sex cleavage
    sex segregation in which boys interact primarily with boys and girls primarily with girls
  48. (p. 310)
    socialized delinquents
    adolescent delinquents who know and subscribe to the norms of society and who are fairly normal psychologically
  49. (p. 312)The age at which adolescents have sexual intercourse for the first time is declining, and about three-quarters have had sex before the age of 20.
  50. (p.314-315)One of the factors in the drop of teenage pregnancies is The use of condoms and other forms of contraception has increased.

    Chapter 1

  1. Louise Brown was the world’s first “test tube baby,” born by in vitro fertilization (IVF), a procedure in which fertilization of a mother’s egg by a father’s sperm takes place outside of the mother’s body.
  2. Lifespan development
    the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the life span.
  3. Some developmentalists focus on physical development, examining the ways in which the body’s makeup—the brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, and the need for food, drink, and sleep—helps determine behavior. For example, one specialist in physical development might examine the effects of malnutrition on the pace of growth in children, whereas another might look at how athletes’ physical performance declines during adulthood.
  4. Finally, some developmental specialists focus on personality and social development. Personality development is the study of stability and change in the characteristics that differentiate one person from another over the life span. Social development is the way in which individuals’ interactions and relationships with others grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life.
  5. These people are in part products of the social times in which they live. Each belongs to a particular cohort, a group of people born at around the same time in the same place. Such major social events as wars, economic upturns and depressions, famines, and epidemics (like the one resulting from the AIDS virus) work similar influences on members of a particular cohort.
  6. Continuous change
    gradual development in which achievements at one level build on those of previous levels
    Discontinuous change
    development that occurs in distinct steps or stages, with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at previous stages.

    One of the primary issues challenging developmentalists is whether development proceeds in a continuous or discontinuous fashion. In continuous change, development is gradual, with achievements at one level building on those of previous levels. Continuous change is quantitative; the underlying developmental processes remain the same over the life span. In this view changes are a matter of degree, not of kind—like changes in a person’s height. Some theorists suggest that changes in people’s thinking abilities are also continuous, building on gradual improvements rather than developing entirely new processing capabilities. In contrast, others see development as primarily a matter of discontinuous change, occurring in distinct stages. Each stage brings about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at previous stages. Consider cognitive development again. Some cognitive developmentalists suggest that our thinking changes in fundamental ways as we develop, not just quantitatively but qualitatively.

  7. Critical period
    a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli are necessary for development to proceed normally

    The differing outcomes demonstrate the concept of critical periods. A critical period is a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences. Critical periods occur when the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli are necessary for development to proceed normally

  8. (page 9)
    the predetermined unfolding of genetic information

    Summarize the influence of nature and nurture on development.
    One of the enduring questions of development involves how much of people’s behavior is the result of genetics (nature) and how much to the physical and social environment (nurture).
    Nature refers to traits, abilities, and capacities that are inherited from one’s parents. It encompasses any factor that is produced by the predetermined unfolding of genetic information—a process known as maturation. These genetic, inherited influences are at work as we move from the one-cell organism created at conception to the billions of cells that make up a fully formed human. Nature influences whether our eyes are blue or brown, whether we have thick hair throughout life or eventually go bald, and how good we are at athletics. Nature allows our brains to develop in such a way that we can read the words on this page.
    In contrast, nurture refers to the environmental influences that shape behavior. Some influences may be biological, such as the impact of a pregnant mother’s use of cocaine on her unborn child or the amount and kind of food available to children. Other influences are more social, such as the ways parents discipline their children and the effects of peer pressure on an adolescent. Finally, some influences are a result of societal factors, such as the socioeconomic circumstances in which people find themselves.
    Although developmentalists reject the notion that behavior is the sole result of either nature or nurture, the nature–nurture question can cause heated debate. Take, for instance, intelligence. If intelligence is primarily determined by heredity and is largely fixed at birth, then efforts to improve intellectual performance later in life may be doomed to failure. In contrast, if intelligence is primarily a result of environmental factors, such as the amount and quality of schooling and home stimulation, then an improvement in social conditions could cause intelligence to increase.
    Clearly, neither nature nor nurture stands alone in most developmental matters. The interaction of genetic and environmental factors is complex, in part because certain genetically determined traits have not only a direct influence on children’s behavior, but also an indirect influence in shaping children’s environments. For example, children who cry a great deal—a trait that may be produced by genetic factors—may influence their environment by making their parents rush to comfort them whenever they cry. The parents’ responsivity to their children’s genetically determined behavior becomes an environmental influence on the children’s subsequent development.
    Similarly, although our genetic background orients us toward particular behaviors, those behaviors will not necessarily occur without an appropriate environment. People with similar genetic backgrounds (such as identical twins) may behave in different ways; and people with highly dissimilar genetic backgrounds can behave quite similarly to one another in certain areas.
    In sum, the nature–nurture question is challenging. Ultimately, we should consider the two sides of the issue as ends of a continuum, with particular behaviors falling somewhere between the ends. The same can be said of the other controversies that we have considered. For instance, continuous versus discontinuous development is not an either–or proposition; some forms of development fall toward the continuous end of the continuum, whereas others lie closer to the discontinuous end. In short, few statements about development involve either–or absolutes.

  9. QUESTION: Piaget suggested that human thinking is arranged into _____, organized mental patterns that represent _____ and _____.
    ANSWER: schemes, behaviors, actions

    (page 16)

    Cognitive perspective
    the approach that focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world

    Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
    No one has had a greater impact on the study of cognitive development than Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist who lived from 1896 to 1980. Piaget proposed that all people pass through a fixed sequence of universal stages of cognitive development—and not only does the quantity of information increase in each stage, but the quality of knowledge and understanding also changes. His focus was on the change in cognition that occurs as children move from one stage to the next. Broadly speaking, Piaget suggested that human thinking is arranged into schemes, organized mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions.

  10. (page 18)
    Humanistic perspective
    the theory that contends that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior.

    Rogers, along with another key figure in the humanistic perspective, Abraham Maslow, suggests that self-actualization is a primary goal in life. Self-actualization is a state of self-fulfillment in which people achieve their highest potential in their own unique way.

  11. (page 19)THE BIOECOLOGICAL APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT In acknowledging the problem with traditional approaches to lifespan development, psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner has proposed an alternative perspective, the bioecological approach. The bioecological approach suggests that there are five levels of the environment that simultaneously influence individuals. Bronfenbrenner suggests that we cannot fully understand development without considering how a person is influenced by each of these levels.
    • The microsystem is the everyday, immediate environment of children’s daily lives. Homes, caregivers, friends, and teachers all are influences, but the child is not just a passive recipient. Instead, children actively help construct the microsystem, shaping their immediate world. The microsystem is the level to which most traditional work in child development has been directed.
    • The mesosystem connects the various aspects of the microsystem. The mesosystem binds children to parents, students to teachers, employees to bosses, friends to friends. It acknowledges the direct and indirect influences that bind us to one another, such as those that affect a mother who has a bad day at the office and then is short-tempered with her son or daughter at home.
    • The exosystem represents broader influences: societal institutions such as local government, the community, schools, places of worship, and the local media. Each of these institutions can have an immediate and major impact on personal development, and each affects how the microsystem and mesosystem operate. For example, the quality of a school will affect a child’s cognitive development and potentially can have long-term consequences.
    • The macrosystem represents the larger cultural influences on an individual, including society in general, types of governments, religious and political value systems, and other broad, encompassing factors. For example, the value a culture places on education affects the values of the people who live in that culture. Children are part of both a broader culture (such as Western culture) and members of one or more subcultures (for instance, Mexican American subculture).
    • Finally, the chronosystem underlies each of the previous systems. It involves the way the passage of time—including historical events (such as the terrorist attacks in September of 2001) and more gradual historical changes (such as changes in the number of women who work outside the home)—affects children’s development.
  12. QUESTION: Name one of the 3 major steps of the scientific method.
    ANSWER: (1) identifying questions of interest, (2) formulating an explanation, and (3) carrying out research that either lends support to the explanation or refutes it.
    scientific method
    the process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data

    Developmentalists, like all psychologists and other scientists, rely on the scientific method. The scientific method is the process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data. The scientific method involves three major steps: (1) identifying questions of interest, (2) formulating an explanation, and (3) carrying out research that either lends support to the explanation or refutes it.

  13. (page 28)
    psychophysiological methods
    research that focuses on the relationship between physiological processes and behavior

    Some developmental researchers, particularly those using a cognitive neuroscience approach, make use of psychophysiological methods. Psychophysiological methods focus on the relationship between physiological processes and behavior. For instance, a researcher might examine the relationship between blood flow in the brain and problem-solving ability. Similarly, some studies use infants’ heart rate as a measure of their interest in stimuli to which they are exposed. Among the most frequently used psychophysiological measures:

    • Electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG uses electrodes placed on the skull to record electrical activity in the brain. The brain activity is transformed into a pictorial representation of brain wave patterns, permitting the diagnosis of disorders such as epilepsy and learning disabilities.
    • Computed tomography (CT) scan. In a CT scan, a computer constructs an image of the brain by combining thousands of individual x-rays taken at slightly different angles. Although it does not show brain activity, it does illuminate the structure of the brain.
    • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) scan. An FMRI provides a detailed, three-dimensional computer-generated image of brain activity by aiming a powerful magnetic field at the brain. It offers one of the best ways of learning about the operation of the brain, down to the level of individual nerves.
  14. (page 29)
    a process in which an investigator, called an experimenter, devises two different experiences for participants and then studies and compares the outcomes

    In an experiment, an investigator or experimenter typically devises two different conditions (or treatments) and then compares how the behavior of the participants exposed to each condition is affected. One group, the treatment or experimental group, is exposed to the treatment variable being studied; the other, the control group, is not.

  15. (page 34-35)
    sequential studies
    research in which researchers examine a number of different age groups over several points in time

    In the “study” conducted by Egyptian King Psamtik, two children were removed from their mothers and held in isolation in an effort to learn about the roots of language. If you found yourself thinking this was extraordinarily cruel, you are in good company. Clearly, such an experiment raises blatant ethical concerns, and nothing like it would ever be done today. But sometimes ethical issues are more subtle. For instance, U.S. government researchers proposed a conference to examine possible genetic roots of aggression. Some researchers had begun to raise the possibility that genetic markers might be found that would identify particularly violence-prone children. If so, it might be possible to track these children and provide interventions to reduce the likelihood of later violence. Critics objected strenuously, however, arguing that identification might lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Children labeled as violence-prone might be treated in a way that would actually cause them to be more aggressive. Ultimately, under intense political pressure, the conference was canceled (Wright, 1995). To help researchers deal with ethical problems, the major organizations of developmentalists, including the Society for Research in Child Development and the American Psychological Association, have developed ethical guidelines for researchers. Among the principles are those involving freedom from harm, informed consent, the use of deception, and maintenance of participants’ privacy:

    • Researchers must protect participants from physical and psychological harm. Their welfare, interests, and rights come before those of researchers. In research, participants’ rights always come first.
    • Researchers must obtain informed consent from participants before their involvement in a study. If they are older than the age of 7, participants must voluntarily agree to be in a study. If younger than age 18, parents or guardians must also provide consent.
      Informed consent can be a sensitive requirement. Suppose, for instance, researchers want to study the psychological effects of abortion on adolescents. To obtain the consent of an adolescent minor who has had an abortion, the researchers would need to get her parents’ permission as well. But if the adolescent hasn’t told her parents about the abortion, the request for parental permission would violate her privacy—leading to a breach of ethics.
    • The use of deception in research must be justified and cause no harm. Although deception to disguise the true purpose of an experiment is permissible, any experiment that uses deception must undergo careful scrutiny by an independent panel before it is conducted. Suppose, for example, we want to know the reaction of participants to success and failure. It is ethical to tell participants that they will be playing a game when the true purpose is actually to observe how they respond to doing well or poorly on the task. However, this is ethical only if it causes no harm to participants, has been approved by a review panel, and includes a full explanation for participants when the study is over.
    • Participants’ privacy must be maintained. If participants are videotaped during a study, for example, they must give their permission for the videotapes to be viewed. Furthermore, access to the tapes must be carefully restricted.

    Chapter 2

  16. QUESTION: (true/false) About an hour or so after the sperm enters the ovum, the two gametes suddenly fuse, becoming a two-cell zygote.
    ANSWER: False

    Earliest Development
    We humans begin the course of our lives simply. Like individuals from tens of thousands of other species, we start as a single tiny cell weighing no more than one 20-millionth of an ounce. But from this humble beginning, in a matter of a few months, a living, breathing individual infant is born. That first cell is created when a male reproductive cell, a sperm, pushes through the membrane of the ovum, the female reproductive cell. These gametes, as the male and female reproductive cells are also called, contain huge amounts of genetic information. About an hour or so after the sperm enters the ovum, the two gametes suddenly fuse, becoming one cell, a zygote. The resulting combination of their genetic instructions—more than 2 billion chemically coded messages—is sufficient to begin creating a whole person.

  17. QUESTION: (true/false) The blueprints for creating a person are stored in our chromosomes?
    ANSWER: False

    (p. 42)

    the basic unit of genetic information

    The blueprints for creating a person are stored and communicated in our genes, the basic units of genetic information. The roughly 25,000 human genes are the biological equivalent of “software” that programs the future development of all parts of the body’s “hardware.”

  18. QUESTION: What is a genotype?
    ANSWER: the underlying combination of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in an organism

    (p. 44)

    the underlying combination of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in an organism
    an observable trait; the trait that is actually seen

    Keep in mind, though, that genetic material from both parent plants is present in the offspring, even if unexpressed. The genetic information is known as the organism’s genotype. A genotype is the underlying combination of genetic material present (but outwardly invisible) in an organism. In contrast, a phenotype is the observable trait—the trait that is actually seen.

  19. QUESTION: What is behavioral genetics?
    ANSWER: the study of the effects of heredity on behavior

    (p. 46)

    behavioral genetics
    the study of the effects of heredity on behavior

    The mapping of the human gene sequence is supporting the field of behavioral genetics. As the name implies, behavioral genetics studies the effects of heredity on behavior and psychological characteristics. Rather than simply examining stable, unchanging characteristics such as hair or eye color, behavioral genetics takes a broader approach, considering how our personality and behavioral habits are affected by genetic factors.

  20. QUESTION: What is Klinefelter’s syndrome
    ANSWER: a disorder resulting from the presence of an extra X chromosome that produces underdeveloped genitals, extreme height, and enlarged breasts

    (p. 47)

    Down syndrome
    a disorder produced by the presence of an extra chromosome on the 21st pair; once referred to as mongolism
    fragile X syndrome
    a disorder produced by injury to a gene on the X chromosome, producing mild to moderate intellectual disabilities
    sickle-cell anemia
    a blood disorder that gets its name from the shape of the red blood cells
    Tay-Sachs disease
    a disorder that produces blindness and muscle degeneration before death; there is no treatment
    Klinefelter’s syndrome
    a disorder resulting from the presence of an extra X chromosome that produces underdeveloped genitals, extreme height, and enlarged breasts
  21. (p. 49)
    ultrasound sonography
    a process in which high-frequency sound waves scan the mother’s womb to produce an image of the unborn baby, whose size and shape can then be assessed
    chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
    a test used to find genetic defects that involves taking samples of hairlike material that surrounds the embryo
    the process of identifying genetic defects by examining a small sample of fetal cells drawn by a needle inserted into the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn fetus
  22. QUESTION: What is a multifactorial transmission?
    ANSWER: the determination of traits by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors in which a genotype provides a range within which a phenotype may be expressed.

    (p. 51)

    multifactorial transmission
    the determination of traits by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors in which a genotype provides a range within which a phenotype may be expressed.

    Such findings illustrate that many traits reflect multifactorial transmission, meaning that they are determined by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. In multifactorial transmission, a genotype provides a range within which a phenotype may be expressed. For instance, people with a genotype that permits them to gain weight easily may vary in their actual body weight. They may be relatively slim, given their genetic heritage but never able to get beyond a certain degree of thinness. In many cases, then, the environment determines how a particular genotype will be expressed as a phenotype

  23. (p. 60)
    the process by which a sperm and an ovum—the male and female gametes, respectively—join to form a single new cell

    Fertilization, or conception, is the joining of sperm and ovum to create the single-celled zygote from which all of us began our lives. Both the male’s sperm and the female’s ovum come with a history of their own. Females are born with around 400,000 ova located in the two ovaries (see Figure 2-9 for the basic anatomy of the female reproductive organs). However, the ova do not mature until the female reaches puberty. From that point until she reaches menopause, the female will ovulate about every 28 days. During ovulation, an egg is released from one of the ovaries and pushed by minute hair cells through the fallopian tube toward the uterus. If the ovum meets a sperm in the fallopian tube, fertilization takes place.

  24. (p. 61)
    germinal stage
    the first—and shortest—stage of the prenatal period, which takes place during the first 2 weeks following conception
    embryonic stage
    the period from 2 to 8 weeks following fertilization during which significant growth occurs in the major organs and body systems
    fetal stage
    the stage that begins at about 8 weeks after conception and continues until birth
    a developing child, from 8 weeks after conception until birth
    a conduit between the mother and fetus, providing nourishment and oxygen via the umbilical cord
  25. QUESTION: What are teratogens?
    ANSWER: environmental agents such as drugs, chemicals, a virus, or other factors that produces a birth defect.
    a factor that produces a birth defect

    Although these views are largely the stuff of folklore, there is some evidence that a mother’s feelings and emotions may have an effect on her fetus. For example, a mother’s anxiety during pregnancy may affect the sleeping patterns of the fetus before birth. There are even aspects of a mother’s and father’s behavior, both before and after conception, that can produce lifelong consequences for the child. Some effects show up immediately, but others don’t appear until years later. Among the most profound negative effects are those caused by teratogenic agents. A teratogen is an environmental agent such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factor that produces a birth defect. Although the placenta is responsible for keeping teratogens from the fetus, it is not 100 percent successful and probably every fetus is exposed to some teratogens.

  26. QUESTION: What is a FASD?
    ANSWER: fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

    (p. 68)

    fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)
    a disorder caused by the pregnant mother consuming substantial quantities of alcohol during pregnancy, potentially resulting in intellectual disability and delayed growth in the child.

    Mother’s use of alcohol and tobacco
    A pregnant woman who reasons that having a drink every once in a while or smoking an occasional cigarette has no appreciable effect on her unborn child is kidding herself; increasing evidence suggests that even small amounts of alcohol and nicotine can disrupt the development of the fetus. Mothers’ use of alcohol can have profound consequences for the unborn child. The children of alcoholics, who consume substantial quantities of alcohol during pregnancy, are at the greatest risk. Approximately 1 out of every 750 infants is born with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), a disorder that may include below-average intelligence and sometimes intellectual disability, delayed growth, and facial deformities. FASD is now the primary preventable cause of intellectual disability.

  27. QUESTION: Why is an episiotomy used?
    ANSWER: to increase the size of the opening of the vagina to allow the baby to pass

    (p. 72)

    the term used for newborns
    an incision sometimes made to increase the size of the opening of the vagina to allow the baby to pass

    Labor proceeds in three stages. In the first stage of labor, the uterine contractions initially occur around every 8 to 10 minutes and last about 30 seconds. As labor proceeds, the contractions occur more frequently and last longer. Toward the end of labor, the contractions may occur every 2 minutes and last almost 2 minutes. As the first stage of labor ends, the contractions reach their greatest intensity, a period known as transition. The mother’s cervix fully opens, eventually expanding enough (usually to around 10 centimeters) to allow the baby’s head to pass through.
    During the second stage of labor, which typically lasts around 90 minutes, the baby’s head proceeds further with each contraction, increasing the size of the vaginal opening. Because the area between the vagina and rectum must stretch, an incision called an episiotomy is sometimes made to increase the size of the opening of the vagina. However, this practice is now seen as potentially harmful, and the number of episiotomies has fallen drastically in the last decade.
    The second stage of labor ends when the baby has completely left the mother’s body. Finally, in the third stage of labor the child’s umbilical cord (still attached to the neonate) and the placenta are expelled from the mother. This stage is the quickest and easiest, taking just a few minutes.

  28. QUESTION: What is the APGAR scale?
    ANSWER: a standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns.

    (p. 73)

    Apgar scale
    a standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns.

    The Apgar Scale In most cases, the newborn undergoes a quick visual inspection. While parents lovingly count fingers and toes, healthcare workers use the Apgar scale, a standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health (see Table 2-3). Developed by physician Virginia Apgar, the scale directs attention to five basic qualities, recalled most easily by using Apgar’s name as a guide: appearance (color), pulse (heart rate), grimace (reflex irritability), activity (muscle tone), and respiration (respiratory effort).

  29. (p. 75-76)
    lamaze birthing techniques
    Based on the writings of Dr. Fernand Lamaze, this method uses breathing techniques and relaxation training (Lamaze, 1970). Typically, mothers-to-be attend weekly training sessions to learn to relax various parts of the body on command. A “coach,” usually the father, is trained at the same time. Through the training, women learn how to deal positively with pain and to relax at the onset of a contraction. Part of the method is to build self-confidence in parents-to-be, demystifying the process of birth.
    Bradley Method
    The Bradley Method, which is sometimes known as “husband-coached childbirth,” is based on the principle that childbirth should be natural, without medication or medical interventions. To prepare for childbirth, mothers-to-be are taught muscle relaxation, breathing techniques, techniques for “trusting their bodies,” and practices to promote good nutrition and exercise. Parents are urged to take responsibility for childbirth and the use of physicians is viewed as unnecessary and sometimes even dangerous. As you might expect, the discouragement of traditional medical interventions is highly controversial.
    Hypnobirthing is a relatively new technique involving a form of self-hypnosis during delivery that produces a sense of peace and calm, thereby reducing pain. The basic concept is to produce a state of focused concentration in which a mother relaxes her body while focusing inward. Increasing research evidence shows the technique can be effective in reducing pain.
    Water Birthing
    Still relatively uncommon in the United States, water birthing is a practice in which a woman enters a pool of warm water to give birth. The theory is that the warmth and buoyancy of the water is soothing, easing the length and pain of labor and childbirth, and the entry into the world is soothed for the infant, who moves from the watery environment of the womb to the birthing pool. Although there is some evidence that water birthing reduces pain and the length of labor, there is a risk of infection from the unsterile water.
  30. (p. 82)
    cesarean delivery
    a birth in which the baby is surgically removed from the uterus, rather than traveling through the birth canal

    Elena became one of the more than 1 million mothers in the United States who have a cesarean delivery each year. In a cesarean delivery (sometimes known as a c-section), the baby is surgically removed from the uterus, rather than traveling through the birth canal. Cesarean deliveries occur most frequently when the fetus shows distress of some sort. For instance, if the fetus appears to be in danger, as indicated by a sudden rise in its heart rate or if blood is seen coming from the mother’s vagina during labor, a cesarean may be performed.

    Chapter 3

    • The cephalocaudal principle states that growth follows a direction and pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds to the rest of the body. The cephalocaudal growth principle means that we develop visual abilities (located in the head) well before we master the ability to walk (closer to the end of the body).
    • The proximodistal principle states that development proceeds from the center of the body outward. The proximodistal principle means that the trunk of the body grows before the extremities of the arms and legs. Furthermore, the development of the ability to use various parts of the body also follows the proximodistal principle. For instance, effective use of the arms precedes the ability to use the hands.
    • The principle of hierarchical integration states that simple skills typically develop separately and independently, but that these simple skills are integrated into more complex ones. Thus, the relatively complex skill of grasping something in the hand cannot be mastered until the developing infant learns how to control—and integrate—the movements of the individual fingers.
    • Finally, the principle of the independence of systems suggests that different body systems grow at different rates. For instance, the patterns of growth for body size, the nervous system, and sexual maturation are quite different.
  31. Neurons are the basic cells of the nervous system.
    Neurons do not actually touch one another. Rather, they communicate with other neurons by means of chemical messengers, neurotransmitters, that travel across the small gaps, known as synapses, between neurons.
  32. Synaptic Pruning Babies are actually born with many more neurons than they need. In addition, although synapses are formed throughout life, based on our principle changing experiences, the billions of new synapses infants form during the first 2 years are more numerous than necessary. What happens to the extra neurons and synaptic connections? (They are done away with)
    Neurons that do not become interconnected with other neurons as the infant’s experience of the world increases become unnecessary. They eventually die out, increasing the efficiency of the nervous system.
    As unnecessary neurons are being reduced, connections between remaining neurons are expanded or eliminated as a result of their use or disuse during the baby’s experiences.
  33. As the neurons grow, they also reposition themselves, becoming arranged by function. Some move into the cerebral cortex, the upper layer of the brain, whereas others move to subcortical levels, which are below the cerebral cortex. The subcortical levels, which regulate such fundamental activities as breathing and heart rate, are the most fully developed at birth. As time passes, however, the cells in the cerebral cortex, which are responsible for higher-order processes such as thinking and reasoning, become more developed and interconnected.
  34. (p. 100)
    the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable as a result of experience

    Brain development, much of which unfolds automatically because of genetically predetermined patterns, is also strongly susceptible to environmental influences. In fact, the brain’s plasticity, the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable as a result of experience, is relatively great. The brain’s plasticity is greatest during the first several years of life.

  35. QUESTION: (True/False) Rhythms are a degree of awareness and state are repetitive.
    ANSWER: False

    (p. 101)
    One of the most important ways that behavior becomes integrated is through the development of various rhythms, which are repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior. Some rhythms are immediately obvious, such as the change from wakefulness to sleep. Others are subtler, but still easily noticeable, such as breathing and sucking patterns.
    One of the major body rhythms is that of an infant’s state, the degree of awareness he or she displays to both internal and external stimulation. As can be seen in Table 3-2, such states include various levels of wakeful behaviors, such as alertness, fussing, and crying, and different levels of sleep as well. Each change in state brings about an alteration in the amount of stimulation required to get the infant’s attention.

  36. (p. 105)
    Reflexes are unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli. Newborns enter the world with a collection of reflexive behavioral patterns that help them adapt to their new surroundings and serve to protect them.
    For instance, the swimming reflex makes a baby who is lying face down in a body of water paddle and kick in a sort of swimming motion. The obvious consequence of such behavior is to help the baby move from danger and survive until a caregiver can come to its rescue. Similarly, the eye-blink reflex seems designed to protect the eye from too much direct light, which might damage the retina.
  37. QUESTION: What is nonorganic failure to thrive?
    ANSWER: children stop growing not for biological reasons but because of a lack of stimulation and attention from their parents

    (p. 110) Infants who receive sufficient nutrition act as though they have been deprived of food. Looking as though they suffer from marasmus, they are underdeveloped, listless, and apathetic. The real cause, though, is emotional: They lack sufficient love and emotional support. In such cases, known as nonorganic failure to thrive, children stop growing not for biological reasons but because of a lack of stimulation and attention from their parents. Usually occurring by the age of 18 months, nonorganic failure to thrive can be reversed through intensive parent training or by placing children in a foster home where they can receive emotional support.

  38. QUESTION: At about what age do doctors think mothers can start weaning their babies from breast milk?
    ANSWER: 3-4 months, and can start feeding them table food around 1 year of age

    (p. 111) ...Physicians suggest that babies can start solids at around 6 months, although they aren’t needed until 9 to 12 months of age.
    Solid foods are introduced into an infant’s diet gradually, one at a time, to be able to be aware of preferences and allergies.
    The timing of weaning, the gradual cessation of breast- or bottle-feeding, varies greatly. In developed countries such as the United States, weaning frequently occurs as early as 3 or 4 months. On the other hand, some mothers continue breastfeeding for 2 or 3 years or beyond. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants be fed breast milk for the first 12 months, and longer if mutually desired by mother and infant.

  39. (p. 112)
    the physical stimulation of the sense organs
    the sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli involving the sense organs and brain

    The processes that underlie infants’ understanding of the world around them are sensation and perception. Sensation is the physical stimulation of the sense organs, and perception is the mental process of sorting out, interpreting, analyzing, and integrating stimuli from the sense organs and brain.

  40. (See previous)
  41. (p. 119)
    Piaget suggested that two principles underlie the growth in children’s schemes: assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the process by which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking. Assimilation occurs, then, when a stimulus or event is acted upon, perceived, and understood in accordance with existing patterns of thought. For example, an infant who tries to suck on any toy in the same way is assimilating the objects to her existing sucking scheme. Similarly, a child who encounters a flying squirrel at a zoo and calls it a “bird” is assimilating the squirrel to his or her existing scheme of bird.

    In contrast, when we change our existing ways of thinking, understanding, or behaving in response to encounters with new stimuli or events, accommodation takes place. For instance, when a child sees a flying squirrel and calls it “a bird with a tail,” he or she is beginning to accommodate new knowledge, modifying his or her scheme of bird.
  42. (p. 125) AUTOMATIZATION In some cases, encoding, storage, and retrieval are relatively automatic, and in other cases they are deliberate. Automatization is the degree to which an activity requires attention. Processes that require relatively little attention are automatic; processes that require relatively large amounts of attention are controlled. For example, some activities such as walking, eating with a fork, or reading may be automatic for you, but at first they required your full attention.
  43. (p. 126)
    infantile amnesia
    the lack of memory for experiences that occurred before 3 years of age

    Older infants can retrieve information more rapidly and they can remember it longer. But just how long? Can memories from infancy be recalled, for example, after babies grow up? Researchers disagree on the age from which memories can be retrieved. Although early research supported the notion of infantile amnesia, the lack of memory for experiences occurring before 3 years of age, more recent research shows that infants do retain memories. For example, in one study, 6-month-old infants were shown a series of unusual events, such as intermittent periods of light and dark and strange sounds. When the children were later tested at the age of 1½ years or 2½ years, they demonstrated that they recalled the experience. Other research indicates that infants show memory for behavior and situations that they have seen only once.

  44. QUESTION: What is the Bayley Scales of Infant Development?
    ANSWER: Developed by Nancy Bayley, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development evaluate an infant’s development from 2 to 42 months. The Bayley Scales focus on two areas: mental (senses, perception, memory, learning, problem solving, and language) and motor abilities (fine and gross motor skills).

    (p. 128-129)
    Know table 3.6

    Visual-recognition memory, the memory and recognition of a stimulus that has been previously seen, also relate to IQ. The more quickly an infant can retrieve a representation of a stimulus from memory, the more efficient, presumably, is that infant’s information processing

  45. (p. 131)
    Prelinguistic communication is communication through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitation, and other nonlinguistic means. When a father responds to his daughter’s “ah” with an “ah” of his own, and then the daughter repeats the sound, and the father responds once again, they are engaged in prelinguistic communication.
    The most obvious manifestation of prelinguistic communication is babbling. Babbling, making speechlike but meaningless sounds, starts at the age of 2 or 3 months and continues until around the age of 1 year. When they babble, infants repeat the same vowel sound over and over, changing the pitch from high to low (as in “ee-ee-ee,” repeated at different pitches). After the age of 5 months, the sounds of babbling begin to expand, reflecting the addition of consonants (such as “bee-bee-bee-bee”).
  46. (p. 136)
    The shift in your language was as a result of your use of infant­-directed speech, a style of speech that characterizes much of the verbal communication directed toward infants. This type of speech pattern used to be called motherese because it was assumed that it applied only to mothers. However, that assumption was wrong, and the gender-neutral term infant-directed speech is now used more frequently.
  47. (p. 142) we are not born with the knowledge that we exist independently from others and the larger world. Very young infants do not have a sense of themselves as individuals; they do not recognize themselves in photos or mirrors. However, the roots of self­-awareness, knowledge of oneself, begin to grow after the age of 12 months.
  48. (p. 144-145) (definitions)
    Ainsworth Strange Situation
    a sequence of staged episodes that illustrate the strength of attachment between a child and (typically) his or her mother
    secure attachment pattern
    a style of attachment in which children use the mother as a kind of home base and are at ease when she is present; when she leaves, they become upset and go to her as soon as she returns
    avoidant attachment pattern
    a style of attachment in which children do not seek proximity to the mother; after the mother has left, they seem to avoid her when she returns as if they are angered by her behavior
    ambivalent attachment pattern
    a style of attachment in which children display a combination of positive and negative reactions to their mothers
    disorganized–disoriented attachment pattern
    a style of attachment in which children show inconsistent, often contradictory behavior, such as approaching the mother when she returns but not looking at her

  49. (p. 150)
    The behavior exhibited by girls and boys is interpreted in different ways by adults. For instance, when researchers showed adults a video of an infant whose name was given as either “John” or “Mary,” adults perceived “John” as adventurous and inquisitive, whereas “Mary” was fearful and anxious, although it was the same baby performing a single set of behaviors. Clearly, adults view the behavior of children through the lens of gender. Gender refers to the sense of being male or female. The term gender is often used to mean the same thing as sex, but they are not actually the same. Sex typically refers to sexual anatomy and sexual behavior, whereas gender refers to the social perceptions of maleness or femaleness.

Extra Credit

  • (Page 1)

The Ruiz “Happy Birthday Family Reunion” was a big success. Marco Ruiz’s grandfather, Geraldo, who would turn 90 tomorrow, was in his glory at the center of the festivities.
Marco’s wife, Louise, had hatched the reunion idea while planning next summer’s wedding of their youngest daughter Eva. Eva’s husband-to-be, Peter, would be the first African American in the family, and Louise’s idea was to introduce him early so his ethnicity would be old news by the wedding day.
Louise’s brainstorm was apparently working, given the happy din of the huge throng in attendance. Marco took a quiet census: his father, Damiano, and Louise’s mom and dad, plus a gaggle of uncles, aunts, siblings, and cousins from his and Louise’s families. One generation down, he counted his children and their families, and virtual busloads of nieces and nephews with their families, down to the youngest child, the daughter of Marco’s niece Terri and her husband Tony, 4-year-old Alicia Wei-Li Saucedo, Geraldo’s great-great-granddaughter, who had been adopted from China. Marco watched as Grandpa Geraldo hugged and chatted happily with Alicia. There in one small picture frame was the story of the five generations of Grandpa’s family, from 4 to 90.
Marco thought to himself: What is Grandpa making of all this? Is he wondering how he spawned all these different personalities? Is he speculating about their careers, their futures? Is he looking for traces of his stubbornness and short temper, his generosity and open- mindedness? Does he find in this gathering the vast ambitions that he had as a boy? Will any of them be—at last—the athlete that he never was, or will they be writers and thinkers like him and his children?
Marco smiled at Louise’s idea of “integrating” Peter into the family. Peter’s skin color wasn’t even an issue. The main stories were that Marco’s nephew Ted was here with his fiancé Tom, and his niece Clarissa had her fiancée Rosa on her arm. Marco’s smile grew broader. Let Grandpa wonder where this latest family trend came from.

  • (Page 40)

Dawn drove home in a state of shock. Her midwife had just confirmed that the baby Dawn was carrying was actually two babies. How would she ever juggle two infants? In contrast, her husband Lyle greeted the news with enthusiasm. Twins! He wondered if they were identical or fraternal. Would they both have sunny dispositions like Dawn or turn out to be worry-warts like his dad? Perhaps one of them would be adventurous and the other cautious. He promised to cut back on the hours of his consulting business after the twins’ birth to help with child care. In the meantime, they could knock down the wall between the two small rooms upstairs to make one good-sized nursery. And they would fence in a safe play yard.

In the following months, Dawn ate nutritious meals and joined an exercise class for pregnant women. She made friends in the group. Her midwife said it would help to know other new moms. Dawn also asked her sister Megan to be part of her birthing team. While Lyle was coaching her through labor, Megan could film the event.

In the 30th week, Dawn experienced weak, intermittent contractions. At the hospital, the doctor said the babies were fine, their heartbeats strong, but that twins were more susceptible to premature birth. The doctor ordered complete bed rest for the next 8 weeks. Dawn took her maternity leave early. She was often bored but 2 months later her twins—identical, girls—were born healthy.

  • (Page 95)

Although they welcomed their adopted daughter Jenna to their family when she was 4 months old, she was still an infant and, to new parents Malia and Tom Turin, a complete mystery. They had by then read what they felt was every baby book ever published, listened intently to tons of advice from experienced friends, and attended a series of training sessions designed, it seemed, to bewilder rather than clarify.

They felt like total amateurs as they drove Jenna home from the airport. Every movement or sound she made was greeted by a diaper change and a bottle in the mouth. Although weary after the long drive home, they barely slept that night from listening for sounds from her crib, which might signal distress.

But they soon understood that Jenna was a healthy, cheerful baby. They learned when she needed feeding and changing, and they responded to her nighttime crying by rocking and soothing her until she quieted. They learned to talk and play with her and to be comfortable around her. They learned, in short, to be parents.

It took a while, but they had arrived. Still, they knew not to be too relaxed, for theirs would be a long journey of many uncertain steps.

Next page: About Me